Sunday, 19 November 2017

UK exports to the European Union 1995 - 2016

Someone suggested after my last post about UK exports that it would be interesting to see where all that UK beer was going.

Luckily for you, I was crazy enough to spend my day off yesterday scanning tables and plonking them into a spreadsheet. There's too much data to put into a single table, so I'm only going back to 1995. I've got near complete data going back to 1946. If you're interested I can publish the older numbers, too.

Where is all that UK beer going in Europe? More than a third is going to Ireland, which might come as a surprise. My guess is that it's mostly stuff like Tennent's. In second place is France. Though the amount has fallen a fair bit since its peak of almost 1.5 million barrels in 2010. Third and fourth place is pretty close between Holland and Italy. Belgium is a long way behind in fifth. For a long period after WW I it was undisputed number one.

Considering the size of its population, there's quite a lot of beer going to Sweden. Lots of Fullers, I suppose. What beer is coming herre to Holland? You see a fair bit of Thornbridge about, but I can't imagine they're exporting anything like a quarter of a million barrels.


UK exports to the European Union 1995 - 2016 (thousands of barrels)
Destination 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2007 2008 2009 2010 2014 2015 2016
Austria 0.2 0.9 5.3 2.6 3.5 3.8 2.4 2.9 3.5 4.5 6.4 5.7
Belgium & Luxembourg 80.7 46.1 51.4 493 34.9 22.1 9.9 38.2 39.8 147.1 40.1 90.5
Cyprus 3.8 3 2.7 3 3.1 4.1 5.1 6.5 68 19.7 48.5 9.2
Denmark 45.4 42.7 233 13 9.6 14.8 12.6 11.4 15.9 8.8 16.1 18.1
Finland 8.8 4.5 3.1 2.4 5.1 11.5 9.8 8.3 12 14.3 16.6 14.3
France 183.7 512.2 279.4 526.2 427.6 1,094.4 919.7 1,299.9 1,443.2 438.0 501.2 544.6
Germany 26.9 24.3 23 103 14.6 48.5 117.8 16.9 80.2 34.8 28.5 58.0
Greece 8.8 4.4 4 5.2 8.4 19.3 7.8 10.4 5.4 6.0 7.1 7.0
Ireland 256 280.2 252.6 325.8 169.3 650.8 660.1 579.8 809.4 764.1 830.8 831.9
Italy 162.9 143.5 83.9 174.9 166.9 90.4 84.7 75.9 97.5 220.0 275.2 272.6
Malta 1 1.9 1.6 2.2 4.9 3.4 4.6 3.2
Netherlands 34.8 39.3 37.8 17.1 48.3 10.8 24.7 108 263.2 266.8 230.0 274.7
Poland 5.6 13.2 9.2 7.3
Portugal 2.1 2.3 13 0.5 1.8 4.1 3.9 3.7 3
Spain 80.4 65.7 41.6 64.1 59.8 80.9 61.9 45.6 53.3 44.0 51.9 54.2
Sweden 18.5 21 17 14.1 26.2 55.8 50.5 56.2 73.9 66.0 62.4 63.8
Other EU Countries 8.1 6.9 2.3 10.7 26.0 52.4 42.2
Total 909.1 1,187.1 823.8 1,205.6 975.9 2,121.3 1,979.2 2,271.0 2,983.9 2,076.8 2,181.2 2,297.2
Sources:
BBPA Statistical Handbook 1999, page 9.
BBPA Statistical Handbook 2011, page 9.
BBPA Statistical Handbook 2017, p. 18.


Saturday, 18 November 2017

1940 Shepherd Neame MB

Now it’s the turn of Shepherd Neame's one Mild ale. Or rather Mild Beer, which is what Shepherd Neame called it.

The grist isn’t that different from their Pale Ales. The only difference is that the Mild contains a second sugar, something called VK. I’ve thrown in No.4 invert as a substitute. No idea how close to the mark that is. It could also have been something paler, like No. 2 invert. But No. 4 gives it something closer to a Dark Mild colour.

There’s also considerably more malt extract in this beer. No idea why that should be.

The high degree of attenuation means that despite the low gravity, it’s still over 3% ABV. It was probably even more than that. The chances are this was primed at racking time with a sugar solution. If Barclay Perkins are typical, that would have bumped up the OG by 1º or 2º and the secondary fermentation it caused would also have bumped up the ABV.

The level of hopping, even for a Mild, is very low. I’m curious as to how it would have tasted. Pretty thin, I would guess, though maybe not so much after the priming. Sweet and fruity, I suppose.


1940 Shepherd Neame MB
pale malt 4.75 lb 77.55%
No. 3 invert sugar 0.75 lb 12.24%
No. 4 invert sugar 0.50 lb 8.16%
malt extract 0.125 lb 2.04%
Fuggles 120 mins 0.25 oz
Goldings 60 mins 0.25 oz
Goldings 30 mins 0.25 oz
OG 1030.6
FG 1006
ABV 3.25
Apparent attenuation 80.39%
IBU 11
SRM 8
Mash at 151º F
Sparge at 170º F
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 62º F
Yeast a Southern English Ale yeast

Friday, 17 November 2017

UK beer exports 1900 - 2016

Another boring numbers post. Feel free to skip it if you prefer those word things. Though I will be throwing in a few of those as well.

I've accumulated some impressive sets of numbers over the years. Especially about British brewing. Mostly they're from the Brewers' Almanack and its successor, the Statistical Handbook. I've got a fairly complete set of most numbers for the 20th century, though there are a few gaps.

The longer the set, the more useful the numbers, I generally find. This lot certainly offered up some surprises. The biggest being that since 1987 UK beer exports have been greater than ever before.

For most of the 20th century, beer exports were in the range 300,000 - 500,000 hl per year. But over the last couple of decades this has shot up to several millions of hectolitres annually. Unfortunately, I don't know which specific beers are being exported. Though given the numbers, most of it must be being produced on an industrial scale.

Good news? I guess so. But there's a huge problem looming on the horizon. Because guess where most of those exports go: EU countries. 63% of exports in 2016. I'm surprised no-one has mentioned this yet. All I've heard are the supposed opportunities that Brexit offers brewers. I suspect that the opposite is more likely to be the case. Be interesting to see what the numbers look like in five years time.


UK beer exports 1900 - 2016
year hl year hl year hl
1900 798,057 1945 213,478 1969 617,139
1905 798,057 1946 306,721 1983 749,544
1910 934,360 1947 179,498 1984 857,557
1913 1,066,657 1948 335,655 1985 984,000
1915 787,485 1949 415,927 1986 1,011,230
1920 519,063 1950 362,023 1987 1,145,000
1922 427,001 1951 450,763 1988 1,231,675
1923 421,339 1952 437,600 1989 1,335,443
1924 429,872 1953 466,320 1990 1,624,000
1925 436,852 1954 405,906 1991 1,842,767
1926 483,584 1955 368,902 1992 2,100,000
1927 452,931 1956 390,937 1993 2,100,000
1934 353,976 1957 391,824 1994 3,200,000
1935 381,055 1958 406,988 1995 3,019,000
1936 531,977 1959 349,168 1996 3,654,000
1937 557,669 1960 364,123 1997 3,290,710
1938 460,338 1962 463,128 1998 3,853,530
1939 464,740 1963 586,923 2000 3,646,600
1940 436,579 1964 623,189 2010 6,789,100
1941 369,129 1965 600,578 2014 5,241,900
1942 155,139 1966 538,643 2015 5,649,600
1943 175,143 1967 484,883 2016 5,974,500
1944 126,992 1968 556,979
Sources:
Brewers' Almanack 1928, p. 115
Brewers' Almanack 1955, p. 57
Brewers' Almanack 1962, p. 57
Brewers' Almanack 1971, p. 54
“The Brewers' Society Statistical Handbook 1988” page 17
“The Brewers' Society Statistical Handbook 1990” page 17
Statistical Handbook of the British Beer & Pub Association 2003, p. 21
Statistical Handbook of the British Beer & Pub Association 2005, p. 17
Statistical Handbook of the British Beer & Pub Association 2011, p. 17
Statistical Handbook of the British Beer & Pub Association 2017, p. 15 - 16

Thursday, 16 November 2017

Midwest USA early March 2018

Sort of sorting a trip out. All a bit vague at the moment.

Interested in listening to a fat, old English (soon to be Dutch) bloke? Get in touch.

First two week in March. Or so.

Oh. And buy my books.


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Kent Beers in 1902

Doing one of my random searches of the British Newspaper Archive a fascinating page of adverts.

It's from a local paper and features advertisements from three breweries from the immediate vicinity. What fascinates me are the similarities and differences between the three brewery's ranges.

The only beer common to all three is my old favourite, AK. Tomson & Wotton even brewed two AKs, presumably at different strengths because the prices are different. Slightly weird to see an AK described as East India Pale Ale. Light Bitter, which how the other two breweries describe it, is more usual.

Shepherd Neame and Tomson & Wotton also both have a beer called KK as their strongest Pale Ale. While Rigden's is called XXK. Though that is another way of writing KK. The london breweries originally called their Stock Ales XXK, XXXK and XXXK, before switching over to KK, KKK and KKKK. At 60s, Shep's KK was a very expensive beer. That's about the same as you'd pay for a barrel of Bass Pale Ale, a beer that commanded a high price.

I'm sure Tomson & Wotton brewed a Mild, even though it isn't mentioned in their advert. Odd that the other two breweries both call theirs Mild Beer rather than the more standard Mild Ale. Note that both only have a single beer described as Mild.

I was surprised to see that the two Faversham breweries produced both Table Ale and Table Beer. Table anything was pretty rare in England by this point. It had long been dropped by the big London brewers. The examples here must have been pretty low gravity as they're under 30s per barrel. At that price, they's have to be under 1040º.

Porter was already starting to die out in the provinces by this time. Though it seems to have clung on longer in the Southeast, possibly because of the proximity to London. Porter remained popular in the capital longer than elsewhere.

There's only one Strong Ale, Rigden's XXX. Which I'm guessing is a Stock Ale rather than a Stock Pale Ale.


Kent Beers in 1902
Brewery Place year beer price per barrel (s) price per gallon (d)
Shepherd Neame Faversham 1902 Stock KK India Pale Ale 60 20
Shepherd Neame Faversham 1902 East India Pale Ale, No. 1 48 16
Shepherd Neame Faversham 1902 East India Pale Ale, No. 2 36 12
Shepherd Neame Faversham 1902 East India Pale Ale, AK 34 11.33
Shepherd Neame Faversham 1902 Mild Beer 36 12
Shepherd Neame Faversham 1902 Table Ale 28 9.33
Shepherd Neame Faversham 1902 Table Beer 24 8
Shepherd Neame Faversham 1902 Stout 50 16.67
Shepherd Neame Faversham 1902 Porter 36 12
W.E. & J. Rigden Faversham 1902 XXK Bitter Ale 50 16.67
W.E. & J. Rigden Faversham 1902 SA Special Ale 42 14
W.E. & J. Rigden Faversham 1902 AK Light Bitter Ale 36 12
W.E. & J. Rigden Faversham 1902 XXX Stock Ale 58 19.33
W.E. & J. Rigden Faversham 1902 X Mild Beer 36 12
W.E. & J. Rigden Faversham 1902 TA Table Ale 28 9.33
W.E. & J. Rigden Faversham 1902 TB Table Beer 22 7.33
W.E. & J. Rigden Faversham 1902 DBS Double Brown Stout 53 17.67
W.E. & J. Rigden Faversham 1902 Nourishing Stout 48 16
W.E. & J. Rigden Faversham 1902 P Porter 36 12
Tomson & Wotton Ramsgate 1902 AK Light Bitter Ale 30 10
Tomson & Wotton Ramsgate 1902 AK Light Bitter Ale 36 12
Tomson & Wotton Ramsgate 1902 AKK Pale Ale 42 14
Tomson & Wotton Ramsgate 1902 KK Pale Ale 48 16
Source:
 Whitstable Times and Herne Bay Herald - Saturday 06 December 1902, page 1.

Wednesday, 15 November 2017

Autumn sale still on

But I'm ot sure for how much longer. Probably not past 30th November.

So if you want to complete your collection of  my classic UK styles (all four of them) books, you'd best hurry.

I've knocked 15% off Strong!, Bitter! and Mild!Plus. And a massive 20% Off Porter!

Alexei has spent all his birthday money on vodka already. And his birthday was only a few days ago. How is he going to be able to saitisfy his cocktail cravings if he can't afford to get gin and rum, too? You should see his sad little face when he says: "Dad, another day without cocktails. Life isn't worth lving."

Please, please save this young man from the despair of cocktail-free evenings. Buy my books now.


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Let's Brew Wednesday - 1940 Shepherd Neame PA

At the start of WW II there were still plenty of Best Bitters, brewed to a decent gravity.

Shepherd Neame PA is an example of such a beer. It had been brewed to around this strength since 1920, when things had started to get back to normal again after the turmoil of WW I.

The recipe is slightly more complicated than it looks as there were two types of pale malt used: one from UK barley and the other from Californian barley. The latter formed about 20% of the total. The small quantity of malt extract I assume is there to provide enzymes. It wasn’t unusual in grists of the period.

The hops are a total guess. I know nothing other than that they were English and from the 1937, 1938 and 1930 seasons. I’ve reduced the amount in the recipe to take into account the age of the hops. There’s no mention of dry-hopping in the brewing record, but I’m sure a draught Best Bitter like this would have been. The quarter ounce I’ve specified is the minimum amount that would have been employed.

It’s possible that there was some colour correction with caramel after primary fermentation.


1940 Shepherd Neame PA
pale malt 10.75 lb 99.08%
malt extract 0.10 lb 0.92%
Fuggles 120 mins 1.00 oz
Goldings 60 mins 1.00 oz
Goldings 30 mins 1.00 oz
Goldings dry hops 0.25 oz
OG 1047
FG 1012
ABV 4.63
Apparent attenuation 74.47%
IBU 43
SRM 5
Mash at 156º F
Sparge at 170º F
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 62º F
Yeast a Southern English Ale yeast

Tuesday, 14 November 2017

Shepherd Neame grists in 1940

As promised, the grists for Shepherd Neame’s grists in the early phase of the war.

Not that they’re very exciting. Quite the opposite, in fact. Shepherd Neame only used two malts, pale and black. And the latter only appeared in their two Stouts.

The Pale Ales are particularly dull, consisting of just pale malt and a tiny amount of malt extract. There’s really not much to be said. Oh, I know. There were two types of pale malt: one from UK-grown barley and one from Californian barley. Which was pretty typical in interwar brewing. After war broke out, supplies from California and other parts of the world dried up and brewers had to use all UK barley.

The presence of rolled oats in the two Stouts implies that one or both at least sometimes were being marketed as Oatmeal Stout. As they were parti-gyled together, there was no option but to have oats in both. The stronger DS was brewed in quite small quantities. In this particular parti-gyle, there were 31 barrels of DS and 120 barrels of SS.

Unsurprisingly, the Mild contains No. 3 invert sugar. That was pretty standard in Dark Mild. That there’s no roasted malt in the Mild is also pretty standard, though most would include crystal malt. I’ve no idea what VK is. Some sort of sugar is all I know. CS and FC, which appear in the Stouts, I assume are some mixture of caramel and invert sugar.


Shepherd Neame beers in 1940
Beer Style OG pale malt black malt oats no. 3 sugar VK sugar CS sugar FC sugar malt extract
MB Mild 1030.5 79.2% 10.2% 8.1% 2.5%
LDA Pale Ale 1030.0 90.6% 8.6% 0.7%
AK Pale Ale 1030.5 99.0% 1.0%
BB Pale Ale 1038.2 99.7% 0.3%
PA Pale Ale 1047.0 99.1% 0.9%
SXX Pale Ale 1055.4 99.7% 0.3%
SS Stout 1030.5 64.3% 10.7% 5.4% 12.5% 7.1%
DS Stout 1044.9 64.3% 10.7% 5.4% 12.5% 7.1%
Source:
Shepherd Neame brewing record held at the brewery.

Monday, 13 November 2017

Shepherd Neame beers in 1940

Some random beers from the early part of WW II. I have to do something with those records I snapped in Faversham.

I’ll admit straight up that I’m not totally sure about the styles that I’ve assigned to the beers. SXX could be a Strong Ale.  LDA – I assume that stands for Light Dinner Ale – I would guess was their Light Ale. BB looks like a 6d Bitter, but I’m not totally sure. The main reason that I’ve assumed they’re all Pale Ales is that they were parti-gyled together. Though that by no means definitely makes them Pale Ales.

I really wish I’d been able to find a Shepherd Neame price list from this period. It might explain a lot. The Whitbread Gravity Book entries don’t help. They have a Shepherd Neame X Ale at 1038º. The only beer that looks like that is BB, which I’ve assumed is a Pale Ale.

The standard Mild is pretty weak. It’s more 4d Ale than X Ale. Pretty watery. Though Shepherd Neame seems to have been very much a Pale Ale brewery.

It’s unusual that they still brewed two Stouts. Though neither is that Stout. SS being particularly puny. To put the two Stouts into context, Guinness Extra Stout was around 1055º at the time.

The strongest beer, SXX was brewed in pretty small batch sizes. Just 20 barrels or so. While BB and MB were brewed 200 or 300 barrels at a time.

Next we’ll be looking at the grists.


Shepherd Neame beers in 1940
Beer Style OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl Pitch temp
MB Mild 1030.5 1006.1 3.22 80.00% 4.00 0.46 62º F
LDA Pale Ale 1030.0 1006.6 3.09 77.84% 6.76 0.75 62.25º F
AK Pale Ale 1030.5 1005.3 3.33 82.73% 6.70 0.78 62.25º F
BB Pale Ale 1038.2 1007.8 4.03 79.71% 6.89 1.00 62.5º F
PA Pale Ale 1047.0 1012.2 4.61 74.07% 8.77 1.77 62.25º F
SXX Pale Ale 1055.4 1015.5 5.28 72.00% 6.89 1.45 62.75º F
SS Stout 1030.5 1008.9 2.86 70.91% 6.73 0.83 62.5º F
DS Stout 1044.9 1016.3 3.77 63.58% 6.73 1.23 62.5º F
Source:
Shepherd Neame brewing record held at the brewery.